13 maart 2024

What is 5G internet?

Let's examine what 5G is, how it functions, and some of its issues. We're going to delve into some fascinating data transmission science and see how, over the past forty years, our capacity to transmit data across the air has changed.


We have been transmitting information through various electromagnetic radiation frequencies for hundreds of years. Signal flames were used in ancient Greece to send signals that could be seen. These days, we use fiber optic lines to transmit messages using light. These cables, which can transmit enormous amounts of data, are the foundation of the internet. To enable wireless data transfer, many gadgets must be wireless, thus we can't connect all of our devices to it. Hence, the creation of cellular networks was necessary.



With the introduction of the 1G, or first generation, of cellular networks in 1979 in Japan, everything got started. G stands for generation, obviously. High-powered radio towers in Tokyo were the first to directly converse with phones mounted in cars. These towers merely sent the data in analogue form using radio waves with frequencies that are nearby on the electromagnetic spectrum. Analogue data must be sent using a carrier frequency in order to accomplish this.
Let's say we wish to send a 100 hertz basic sine wave as a sound wave. In this case we want to apply it to an 850 MHz wave, a wave that is considerably more frequent. Amplitude modulation (AM) or frequency modulation (FM) can be used to accomplish this. AM and FM are undoubtedly terms you are familiar with, particularly when it comes to radio stations. AM changes the carrier frequency's amplitude by applying the data to that frequency's amplitude. In other words, retracing the original wave's peaks and troughs. FM adjusts the carrier wave's frequency according to the data, tracing the original wave by changing the separation between its peaks. This technique requires a designated frequency band, which is determined by the lowest and highest frequencies employed. You must utilize an alternative frequency band if someone else is utilizing that frequency band on the same tower.


The tower can handle more calls the more frequency bands you have. This is what bandwidth is. The system's capabilities were constantly being pushed as the user base increased. It’s possible to increase bandwidth by adding additional frequencies, but doing so has its challenges. There is a lot of competition and frequencies require licensing. Consider the use of applications like weather, radar, military communication and security systems, radio astronomy, radio broadcasting, aviation systems and air traffic control.
Each of them requires an own frequency band. Companies frequently had to attend auctions and pay a high licensing fee in order to get new frequency bands. While much has been done over the years to pack more data onto a single frequency band, this was done with every new generation of cellular network.


Instead of employing a single high power tower to cover a whole city, increasing the number of towers can increase the number of users who can share the same frequency band. It is possible to employ several lower power towers. Then, within the range of each tower, specific customers might be assigned specific frequency bands without interfering with that band in other cells. Although the number of users that networks could sustain rose as a result, the data transfer speeds were not optimally raised. Although 1G was capable of 2.4 kilobits per second, defining it in bits seems a little illogical because bits are the units of digital data whereas 1G operated in analogue.



With the launch of a fully digital system, 2G signalled the beginning of a new age for mobile phones. 2G used binary data encoding rather than encoding an analogue signal into a frequency range. Using digital data opened up new channels for communication. This was the time period when a new language emerged; texting. Designed to stay under the 160-character limit and avoid having to pay your cell network operator for two texts. Texts were condensed using abbreviations like BRB (be right back) or by shortening words with numbers (wait > w8).
That 160-character text was encoded with seven bits for each character. A 160 character text therefore contains 1120 bits. 2G's maximum speed at launch was 9.6 kilobits per second. That 1120 bit text message was handled with ease by 2G.

However, the 2G period continued up until the release of the first iPhone. Thanks to enhanced Internet protocols general packet radio switching speeds could now reach 200 kilobits per second, sometimes referred to as 2.5G.



When the iPhone 2 was released, 3G had become the latest trend. Additional frequency bands were added with 3G. Companies are thought to have spent more than $100 billion on new frequencies through auctions in Europe alone. However, 3G also introduced a technology that fully utilized the data packet switching technique. GPPS also made use of this packet switching.
Several users could now share numerous frequencies significantly more effectively thanks to packet switching. Data was divided into smaller data packets in this case. Each data packet has a header that includes the destination address and instructions for reassembling the data packets. Instead of attempting to locate a significant gap in availability on a single frequency band, splitting the data into smaller, more manageable portions allowed for better use of the frequency bands available. This way data could be broken up into smaller pieces and being transmitted over a wide range of frequency bands.
When a tiny availability suddenly materialized, it was like switching from sending a massive data truck down a single road to sending thousands of motorbike messengers over the busiest of routes. As a result, frequency bands' capacity was more effectively utilized and transfer more data over time. These protocols were upgraded, making it possible to use the bandwidth even more effectively. High speed packet access (HSPA) was introduced in 2005 and enhanced speeds to 42 megabits per second. It was marked as 3.5G.


4G (LTE)

Long Term Evolution (LTE), a new technology, was made available through 4G. Even more frequency bands, such as the 700 megahertz band previously utilized for analogue TV broadcasts, were established. Additionally, it offered orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) as a new technique for cramming more data into the already-existing frequency bands. Users were able to submit much more data as a result. This introduces the concepts of constructive and destructive interference, which refers to the ability of two waves to combine and either increase or decrease each other's amplitude when they come into contact. The same amount of data can now be transferred over a shorter period of time by enabling signals to be crammed together and overlap. Traditionally, signals had to be separated out over time to prevent interference. The signals were decoded and transformed back to binary data when they arrived.


The endless possibilites of 5G

Massvce MIMO, also known as massive multiple input multiple output, will be used in 5G. Basically, these are collections of antennas that are tuned into and transmitting across the same frequency ranges. However, 5G is also aiming to use beamforming, which will enable the antenna to aim at your phone directly instead of broadcasting the signal in all directions, preventing interference.
This, along with the capacity for more data to be carried by higher frequency waves, has led to 5G reaching speeds of up to 1800 megabits per second (in the US). Since we are encoding our information into the wave cycles, higher frequencies can convey more information.


Hertz is how we measure frequency, yet all it truly means is that one wave cycle is coming to us every second. The difference between 10 hertz and 190 megahertz is the number of wave cycles that are transmitted to us in a second. This implies that we can pack more data into higher frequency waves. We have been utilizing frequencies between 700 megahertz and 2500 megahertz up to this point. Consequently, there are 700 million to 2500 million wave cycles every second.


Higher download rates and decreased latency will be possible with 5G. This will be crucial for time-sensitive technologies like self-driving cars, which need quick communication between networked vehicles and enable the addition of even more gadgets. It will have a huge impact on networking, surgery, and connecting all objects to build the Internet of Things (IoT).



At Mifi-hotspots.com we are ready for the future. We are offering a vast array of (mobile) routers, antennas and other products to get you started with 5G or to upgrade your current system. With all products that are 5G it is clearly stated, but for your convenience definitely check out these following products.


Celerway Stratus 5G

Fast, stable and global internet with the highly advanced and powerful Celerway Stratus 5G router

Celerway Stratus CAT20 dual modem router 1 Gbps provides you with an high performing mobile communication solution for uninterrupted and rock-solid connectivity in a vast number of deployment scenarios. For public transportation, trucks, and near-shore vessels, remote offices, retail, and live events, Stratus delivers high class connectivity with resilience, security, and network visibility, making it a potentially indispensable part of your toolkit.


Poynting OMNI-A0414

The Poynting OMNI-A0414 is an ultra-wide band LTE and WIFI antenna, which covers all LTE operating frequencies(410-3800MHz) with an excellent gain across all frequencies. The Poynting-A0414 is a 2x2 MIMO omni antenna and has 2 separated radiating elements placed above each other in the same radome. With a frequency reach up to 3800 MHz this antenna is suited for the future 5G network.


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